Glossary of Terms

There are multiple conventions for describing the parts of a Cherokee word. Hover over each terminology mode below to see more details about what they offer.

Aspectual Suffixes

PRS Present Aspectual Suffix
The Present Continuous (PRC) or Present (PRS) stem indicates that an action or state is happening at the time of speaking. (CRG: 67-68)
IMPF Imperfective Aspectual Suffix
The Incompletive (INC) or Imperfective (IMPF) stem indicates that the action is not completed. (CRG: 68-69)
PFT Perfective Aspectual Suffix
The Completive (CMP) or Perfective (PFT) stem indicates a past or future completed action. (CRG: 72-74)
PCT Punctual Aspectual Suffix
The Immediate (IMM) or Punctual (PCT) stem presents an action that took place in the recent past; it can also be used as a command to express an action that should be done in the near future. (CRG: 69-72)
INF Infinitive Suffix
The Infinitive (INF) has many different uses; for most of these functions it appears with another verb rather than alone. One of the most common uses of this stem is the Infinitive complement function: to serve as an object to another verb. (CRG: 74-77)

Prepronominal Prefixes

IRR Irrealis Prepronominal Prefix
The Irrealis (IRR) prepronominal prefix references an action that has not occurred and/or might occur. One of the most important functions of this prefix is negation. (CRG: 106-109)
TRNSL Translocative Prepronominal Prefix
The Translocative (TRNSL) prepronominal prefix indicates a motion away from the speaker as well as an action that is taking place at a distance from the speaker. (CRG: 104-106)
PART1 Partitive 1 Prepronominal Prefix
The ni- or Partitive prepronominal prefix has two forms: NI1 (PART1) and NI2 (PART2). This prefix has several different functions. (CRG 283-288; 339-340)
PART2 Partitive 2 Prepronominal Prefix
The ni- or Partitive prepronominal prefix has two forms: NI1 (PART1) and NI2 (PART2). This prefix has several different functions. (CRG 283-288; 339-340)
DIST1 Distributive 1 Prepronominal Prefix
The Distributive prepronominal prefix has two forms, DIST1 and DIST2. Its two basic meanings are to indicate the presence of a nonsingular object or the distribution and/or multiplication of an action. (CRG: 109-113;140; 304-305)
DIST2 Distributive 2 Prepronominal Prefix
The Distributive prepronominal prefix has two forms, DIST1 and DIST2. Its two basic meanings are to indicate the presence of a nonsingular object or the distribution and/or multiplication of an action. (CRG: 109-113;140; 304-305)
CISL1 Cislocative 1 Prepronominal Prefix
The Toward or Cislocative prepronominal prefix has two forms: TOW1 (CISL1) and TOW2 (CISL2). This prefix indicates an action that is facing or approaching the speaker.
CISL2 Cislocative 2 Prepronominal Prefix
The Toward or Cislocative prepronominal prefix has two forms: TOW1 (CISL1) and TOW2 (CISL2). This prefix indicates an action that is facing or approaching the speaker.
ITER1 Iterative 1 Prepronominal Prefix
The Iterative prepronominal prefix has two forms, ITER1 and ITER2. This prefix indicates that an action has been repeated. (CRG: 293-296)
ITER2 Iterative 2 Prepronominal Prefix
The Iterative prepronominal prefix has two forms, ITER1 and ITER2. This prefix indicates that an action has been repeated. (CRG: 293-296)
REL Relative Prepronominal Prefix
The Relativizer or Relative (REL) prepronominal prefix has several important uses. Its main use is to indicate that a verb is part of a relative clause. It is also used to indicate a definite past time frame in which the verb took place. (CRG: 279-282)
NEG Negative 1 Prepronominal Prefix
The GA or Negative (NEG) prepronominal prefix has several uses. The most common use of this prefix is to indicate that something has not happened for a certain period. (CRG: 297-300)
ANS Animate Nonsingular Prepronominal Prefix
For some speakers the Animate Nonsingular (ANS) prepronominal prefix gaa- is used to reference third person nonsingular animate objects; other speakers use the Distributive prefix dee-. (CRG: 117)
COM Command Prepronominal Prefix
The Command (COM) prepronominal prefix appears with negative commands in certain contexts. (CRG: 113-115)
TOC Toward Command Prepronominal Prefix
CISL2 Cislocative 2 Prepronominal Prefix

Clitics

AQ Alternative Question Clitic
The "Or" Question (OQ) postfix presents a choice between two alternatives. lt also appears on question words either to emphasize the question, as in (85a), or to alter the question itself. (CRG: 198-199)
CS Concessive Clitic
The Concessive (CS) postfix is typically translated as ‘but’; when attached to a question word, however, it often expresses ‘I wonder’. (CRG: 209)
CN Conjunction Clitic
The Conjunction (CN) postfix serves to link two words together and is often translated as ‘and’; another important function is to announce the topic of the sentence. (CRG 206-208)
CQ Conducive Question Clitic
The Conducive Question (CQ) postfix is used to ask questions to which a ‘yes’ answer is expected. (CRG: 198-199)
BUT Contrastive Clitic
The Contrastive (CT) postfix usually occurs following -sgo to question an assertion. (CRG: 203-204)
DT Delimiter Clitic
The Delimiter (DT) postfix often has the meaning ‘only’ or ‘just’ and is often emphatic. (CRG: 200-202)
EQ Echo Question Clitic
F Focus Clitic
The Emphatic (EM) postfix used to emphasize a word, usually at the beginning of a clause. It is often not translated. (CRG: 204-205)
FOC2 Focus2 Clitic
The Focus (FC) postfix indicates focus on the word to which it attaches. (CRG: 205-206)
OS "Or" Statement Clitic
The "Or" Statement (OR) postfix is typically translated as ‘or’ and attaches to statements. (CRG: 202-203)
Q Interrogative Clitic
The Yes/No Question (Q) postfix appears on the word that is being questioned when a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer is expected. (CRG:199-200)

Modal Suffixes

HAB Habitual Modal Suffix
ASR Assertive Modal Suffix
REP Reportive Modal Suffix
FUT.PROG Future Progressive Modal Suffix
FUT.IMP Future Imperative Modal Suffix
MOT Motion Modal Suffix
IND Indicative Modal Suffix
NEG.P Negative Participle Modal Suffix
MOT Motion Modal Suffix

Nominal Suffixes

NOM/SH Superhigh Nominal Suffix
ASR/SH Assertive Superhigh Suffix
PP/SH Passive Participle Suffix
POSS/SH Possessive Suffix
ADJ/SH Adjective Suffix
LOC/SH Locative Suffix
IND/SH Superhigh Indicative Suffix
DIM/SH Diminutive Suffix
INT Intensifier Suffix
AUG Augmentative Suffix
CHR Characterizer Suffix
NOM Nominal Suffix
NOM/SH Superhigh Nominal Suffix

Pronominal Prefixes

1SG.A Set A 1SG Pronominal Prefix
2SG.A Set A 2SG Pronominal Prefix
3SG.A Set A 3SG Pronominal Prefix
1DU.IN.A Set A 1DU IN Pronominal Prefix
1DU.EX.A Set A 1DU EX Pronominal Prefix
2DU 2DU Pronominal Prefix
1PL.IN.A Set A 1PL IN Pronominal Prefix
1PL.EX.A Set A 1PL EX Pronominal Prefix
2PL 2PL Pronominal Prefix
3PL.A Set A 3PL Pronominal Prefix
1SG>AN Set A 1SG AN Pronominal Prefix
2SG>AN Set A 2SG AN Pronominal Prefix
1DU.IN>AN Set A 1DU IN AN Pronominal Prefix
1DU.EX>AN Set A 1DU EX AN Pronominal Prefix
2DU>AN Set A 2DU AN Pronominal Prefix
1PL.IN>AN Set A 1PL IN AN Pronominal Prefix
1PL.EX>AN Set A 1PL EX AN Pronominal Prefix
2PL>AN Set A 2PL AN Pronominal Prefix
1SG.B Set B 1SG Pronominal Prefix
2SG.B Set B 2SG Pronominal Prefix
3SG.B Set B 3SG Pronominal Prefix
1DU.IN.B Set B 1DU IN Pronominal Prefix
1DU.EX.B Set B 1DU EX Pronominal Prefix
1PL.IN.B Set B 1PL IN Pronominal Prefix
1PL.EX.B Set B 1PL EX Pronominal Prefix
3PL.B Set B 3 PL Pronominal Prefix
3B.IP Set B 3 Impersonal Pronominal Prefix
3A.IP Set A 3 Impersonal Pronominal Prefix
1B.FAM Family Pronominal Prefix
EMP.PRO Emphatic Pronoun
3PL>1SG 3PL>1SG Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>2SG 3PL>2SG Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>3SG 3PL>3SG Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>1DU.IN 3PL>1DU.IN Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>1DU.EX 3PL>1DU.EX Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>2DU 3PL>2DU Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>1PL.IN 3PL>1PL.IN Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>1PL.EX 3PL>1PL.EX Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
3PL>2PL 3PL>2PL Combined Nonsingular Subject Prefix
2/1SG 2/1SG Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
2/1DU 2/1DL Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
2/1PL 2/1PL Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
1/2SG 1/2SG Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
1/2DU 1/2DL Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
1/2PL 1/2PL Combined Local Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>1SG 1SG Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>2SG 2SG Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>3SG 3SG Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>1DU.IN 1DU IN Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>1DU.EX 1DU EX Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>2DU 2DU Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>1PL.IN 1PL IN Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>1PL.EX 1PL EX Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>2PL 2PL Object Focus Pronominal Prefix
UNSP>3PL 3PL Object Focus Pronominal Prefix

Personal Pronouns

1PRO 1st Person Personal Pronoun
2PRO 2nd Person Personal Pronoun
POS.PRO Possessive Pronoun

Derivational Suffixes

DAT Dative Derivational Suffix
DAT:PRS Present Dative Derivational Suffix
DAT:IMPF Imperfective Dative Derivational Suffix
DAT:PFT Perfective Dative Derivational Suffix
DAT:PCT Punctual Dative Derivational Suffix
DAT:INF Infinitive Dative Derivational Suffix
INST Causative Derivational Suffix
INST:PRS Present Causative Derivational Suffix
INST:IMPF Imperfective Causative Derivational Suffix
INST:PFT Perfective Causative Derivational Suffix
INST:PCT Punctual Causative Derivational Suffix
INST:INF Infinitive Causative Derivational Suffix
AND:PRS Present Andative Derivational Suffix
AND:IMPF Imperfective Andative Derivational Suffix
AND:PFT Perfective Andative Derivational Suffix
AND:PCT Punctual Andative Derivational Suffix
AND:INF Infinitive Andative Derivational Suffix
VEN Venitive Derivational Suffix
VEN:PRS Present Venitive Derivational Suffix
VEN:IMPF Imperfective Venitive Derivational Suffix
VEN:PFT Perfective Venitive Derivational Suffix
VEN:PCT Punctual Venitive Derivational Suffix
VEN:INF Infinitive Venitive Derivational Suffix
AMB Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:PRS Present Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:IMPF Imperfective Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:PFT Perfective Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:PCT Punctual Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:INF Infinitive Ambulative Derivational Suffix
REP:PRS Present Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:IMPF Imperfective Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:PFT Perfective Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:PCT Punctual Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:INF Infinitive Repetitive Derivational Suffix
DUP Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DUP:PRS Present Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DUP:IMPF Imperfective Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DUP:PFT Perfective Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DUP:PCT Punctual Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DUP:INF Infinitive Duplicative Derivational Suffix
INCEP Inceptive Derivational Suffix
INCEP:PRS Present Inceptive Derivational Suffix
INCEP:IMPF Imperfective Inceptive Derivational Suffix
INCEP:PFT Perfective Inceptive Derivational Suffix
INCEP:PCT Punctual Inceptive Derivational Suffix
INCEP:INF Infinitive Inceptive Derivational Suffix
COMP Completive Derivational Suffix
COMP:PRS Present Completive Derivational Suffix
COMP:IMPF Imperfective Completive Derivational Suffix
COMP:PFT Perfective Completive Derivational Suffix
COMP:PCT Punctual Completive Derivational Suffix
COMP:INF Infinitive Completive Derivational Suffix
ACC Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:IMPF Imperfective Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:PFT Perfective Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:PCT Punctual Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:INF Infinitive Accidental Derivational Suffix
MLT:PRS Present Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:IMPF Imperfective Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:PFT Perfective Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:INF Infinitive Multiplicative Derivational Suffix

Reflexive Prefixes

REFL Reflexive Prefix
MID Middle Prefix