Glossary of Terms

Aspectual Suffixes

CMP Completed Action
The Completive/Perfective stem indicates a past or future completed action. (CRG: 72-74)
IMM Immediate Action ('just now')
The Immediate/Punctual stem presents an action that took place in the recent past; it can also be used as a command to express an action that should be done in the near future. (CRG: 69-72)
INC Incomplete Action
The Incompletive/Imperfective stem indicates that the action is not completed. (CRG: 68-69)
INF Infinitive ('to do...')
The Infinitive has many different uses; for most of these functions it appears with another verb rather than alone. One of the most common uses of this stem is the Infinitive complement function: to serve as an object to another verb. (CRG: 74-77)
PRC Present Continuous Action
The Present Continuous stem indicates that an action or state is happening at the time of speaking. (CRG: 67-68)


CN Conjunction Suffix ('and')
The Conjunction postfix serves to link two words together and is often translated as ‘and’; another important function is to announce the topic of the sentence. (CRG 206-208)
CQ Conducive Question ('don't you...?')
The Conducive Question postfix is used to ask questions to which a ‘yes’ answer is expected. (CRG: 198-199)
CS Concessive Suffix ('but', 'wonder if')
The Concessive postfix is typically translated as ‘but’. When attached to a question word, it often expresses ‘I wonder’. (CRG: 209)
CT Contrastive Suffix
The Contrastive postfix usually occurs following -sgo to question an assertion. (CRG: 203-204)
DT Delimiter Suffix ('only')
The Delimiter postfix often has the meaning ‘only’ or ‘just’ and is often emphatic. (CRG: 200-202)
EM Emphasis Suffix
The Emphatic postfix used to emphasize a word, usually at the beginning of a clause. It is often not translated. (CRG: 204-205)
EQ Echo Question Suffix
FC Focus Suffix
The Focus postfix indicates focus on the word to which it attaches. (CRG: 205-206)
OQ Or' Question Suffix
The 'Or' Question postfix presents a choice between two alternatives. lt also appears on question words either to emphasize the question, as in (85a), or to alter the question itself. (CRG: 198-199)
OS "Or" Statement
The "Or" Statement postfix is typically translated as ‘or’ and attaches to statements. (CRG: 202-203)
Q Yes/No Question Suffix
The Yes/No Question postfix appears on the word that is being questioned when a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer is expected. (CRG:199-200)

Derivational Suffixes

ACC:CMP Completive Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:IMM Immediate Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:INC Incompletive Accidental Derivational Suffix
ACC:INF Infinitive Accidental Derivational Suffix
AMB Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:CMP Completive Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:IMM Immediate Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:INC Incompletive Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:INF Infinitive Ambulative Derivational Suffix
AMB:PRC Present Continuous Ambulative Derivational Suffix
APL Applicative Derivational Suffix
APL:CMP Completive Applicative Derivational Suffix
APL:IMM Immediate Applicative Derivational Suffix
APL:INC Incompletive Applicative Derivational Suffix
APL:INF Infinitive Applicative Derivational Suffix
APL:PRC Present Continuous Applicative Derivational Suffix
CAUS Causative Derivational Suffix
CAUS:CMP Completive Causative Derivational Suffix
CAUS:IMM Immediate Causative Derivational Suffix
CAUS:INC Incompletive Causative Derivational Suffix
CAUS:INF Infinitive Causative Derivational Suffix
CAUS:PRC Present Continuous Causative Derivational Suffix
DPL Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DPL:CMP Completive Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DPL:IMM Immediate Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DPL:INC Incompletive Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DPL:INF Infinitive Duplicative Derivational Suffix
DPL:PRC Present Continuous Duplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:CMP Completive Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:INC Incompletive Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:INF Infinitive Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MLT:PRC Present Continuous Multiplicative Derivational Suffix
MOV:CMP Completive Movement Derivational Suffix
MOV:IMM Immediate Movement Derivational Suffix
MOV:INC Incompletive Movement Derivational Suffix
MOV:INF Infinitive Movement Derivational Suffix
MOV:PRC Movement Derivational Suffix
PRI Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRI:CMP Completive Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRI:IMM Immediate Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRI:INC Incompletive Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRI:INF Infinitive Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRI:PRC Present Continuous Pre-incipient Derivational Suffix
PRP Purpose Derivational Suffix
PRP:CMP Completive Purpose Derivational Suffix
PRP:IMM Immediate Purpose Derivational Suffix
PRP:INC Incompletive Purpose Derivational Suffix
PRP:INF Infinitive Purpose Derivational Suffix
PRP:PRC Present Continuous Purpose Derivational Suffix
REP:CMP Completive Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:IMM Immediate Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:INC Incompletive Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:INF Infinitive Repetitive Derivational Suffix
REP:PRC Present Continuous Repetitive Derivational Suffix
TRM Terminative Derivational Suffix
TRM:CMP Completive Terminative Derivational Suffix
TRM:IMM Immediate Terminative Derivational Suffix
TRM:INC Incompletive Terminative Derivational Suffix
TRM:INF Infinitive Terminative Derivational Suffix
TRM:PRC Present Continuous Terminative Derivational Suffix

Modal Suffixes

CMF Completed Future Action
COND.FUT Conditional Future Action
EXP Experienced Past Event
FCM Future Command ('let us...')
HAB Habitual Action
IND Indicative Suffix
MOT In Motion
NDV Negative Deverbalizer Suffix
NXP Non-experienced Past Event
PFT Progressive Future ('is going to...')

Nominal Suffixes

ADJ Adjective Suffix
AGT Agentive Suffix
AUG Augmentative Suffix
CHR Characterizer Suffix
CVB Converb Suffix
DIM Diminutive Suffix
DVB Deverbalizer Suffix
INT Intensifier Suffix
LOC Locative Suffix
NOM Nominal Suffix
PCP Participle Suffix
POSS Possessive Suffix
REAL Authentic Suffix

Personal Pronouns

I.we 1st Person Personal Pronoun
POSS.PRO Possessive Pronoun ('their')

Prepronominal Prefixes

ANS Animate Nonsingular Prefix
For some speakers the Animate Nonsingular (ANS) prepronominal prefix gaa- is used to reference third person nonsingular animate objects; other speakers use the Distributive prefix dee-. (CRG: 117)
COM Command Prefix ('do ...!')
The Command prepronominal prefix appears with negative commands in certain contexts. (CRG: 113-115)
DST Distributive Prefix ('many')
The Distributive prepronominal prefix has two forms, DST1 and DST2. Its two basic meanings are to indicate the presence of a nonsingular object or the distribution and/or multiplication of an action. (CRG: 109-113;140; 304-305)
IRR Irrealis Prefix ('maybe')
The Irrealis prepronominal prefix references an action that has not occurred and/or might occur. One of the most important functions of this prefix is negation. (CRG: 106-109)
ITR Iterative Prefix ('over and over')
The Iterative prepronominal prefix indicates that an action has been repeated. (CRG: 293-296)
NEG Negative Prefix ('not')
The GA or Negative prepronominal prefix has several uses. The most common use of this prefix is to indicate that something has not happened for a certain period. (CRG: 297-300)
NI NI2 Prefix
The ni- or Partitive prepronominal prefix has two forms: NI1 (PART1) and NI2 (PART2). This prefix has several different functions. (CRG 283-288; 339-340)
REL Relativizer Prefix
The Relativizer prepronominal prefix primarily indicates that a verb is part of a relative clause. It may also indicate a definite past time frame in which the verb took place. (CRG: 279-282)
TOC Toward Command Prefix ('go do ...!')
TOW Toward Prefix
The Toward or Cislocative prepronominal prefix has two forms: TOW1 (CISL1) and TOW2 (CISL2). This prefix indicates an action that is facing or approaching the speaker.
TRNSL Translocative Prefix ('away from')
The Translocative prepronominal prefix indicates a motion away from the speaker as well as an action that is taking place at a distance from the speaker. (CRG: 104-106)

Pronominal Prefixes

3PL 3rd Person Plural Pronoun
3SG 3rd Person Singular Pronoun ('she, he, they, it') 1st Person Plural Inclusive Pronoun
EMP.PRO Emphatic Pronoun
I 1st Person Singular Pronoun
I/AN 1st Person Animate Pronoun
I.OBJ 1st Person Singular Object Focus Pronoun
I/them 1/3PL Combined Local Pronoun
I/you 1/2SG Combined Local Pronoun
I/you.all 1/2PL Combined Local Pronoun
I/you.two 1/2DL Combined Local Pronoun
my 1st Person Family Pronoun
one 3rd Person Impersonal Pronoun
s/he/they.&.I 1st Person Dual Exclusive Pronoun
s/he/they.&.I/AN 1st Person Dual Exclusive Animate Pronoun
s/he/they.&.I.OBJ 1st Person Dual Exclusive Object Focus Pronoun
s/he/they.OBJ 3rd Person Singular Object Focus Pronoun
they 3rd Person Plural Pronoun
they> 3PL>1PL.IN Combined Nonsingular Subject
they>him.&.me 3PL>1DU.EX Combined Nonsingular Subject
they.&.I 1st Person Plural Exclusive Pronoun
they.&.I/AN 1st Person Plural Exclusive Animate Pronoun
they.&.I.OBJ 1st Person Plural Exclusive Object Focus Pronoun
they>me 3rd Person Plural Subject, 1st Person Singular Object
they.OBJ 3rd Person Plural Object Focus Pronoun
they>s/he/them 3rd Person Plural Subject, 3rd Person Singular Object
they>them 3PL>3PL Combined Nonsingular Subject
they>them.&.me 3PL>1PL.EX Combined Nonsingular Subject
they>you 3rd Person Plural Subject, 2nd Person Singular Object
they>you.all 3PL>2PL Combined Nonsingular Subject
they>you.&.me 3PL>1DU.IN Combined Nonsingular Subject
they>you.two 3PL>2DU Combined Nonsingular Subject
we.all/AN 1st Person Plural Inclusive Animate Pronoun
we.all.OBJ 1st Person Plural Inclusive Object Focus Pronoun
you 2nd Person Singular Pronoun
you.all 2nd Person Plural Pronoun
you.all/AN 2nd Person Plural Animate Pronoun
you.all.OBJ 2nd Person Plural Object Focus Pronoun
you/AN 2nd Person Animate Pronoun
you/him.&.me 2/1DL Combined Local Pronoun
you.&.I 1st Person Dual Inclusive Pronoun
you.&.I/AN 1st Person Dual Inclusive Animate Pronoun
you.&.I.OBJ 1st Person Dual Inclusive Object Focus Pronoun
you/me 2/1SG Combined Local Pronoun
you.OBJ 2nd Person Singular Object Focus Pronoun
you/them.&.me 2/1PL Combined Local Pronoun
you.two 2nd Person Dual Pronoun
you.two/AN 2nd Person Dual Animate Pronoun
you.two.OBJ 2nd Person Dual Object Focus Pronoun

Reflexive Prefixes

MDL Middle Prefix
RFL Reflexive Prefix